What are vitamins? Uses, benefits, source and disease in deficiency of vitamins : Vitamins are complex organic compound, which are important in small amount for the body for normal metabolic functions. They can not be synthesized by the body and should be obtained from food. A normal person taking balanced diet receives adequate amount of vitamin in food.

What are vitamins? Uses, benefits, source and disease in deficiency of vitamins?


There are different types of vitamin are available and each of them is required for different parts.
Vitamins are divided into two groups according to their solubility, these are :
1. Fat Soluble
2. Water Soluble

1. Fat soluble : Fat soluble vitamins is first type of vitamin, vitamins A, Vitamin D, Vitamin E and Vitamin K are the fat soluble vitamins. These are stored in the body for a long period and are liable to produce cumulative to after regular ingestion in large amounts.
Name and Chemical bame of vitamins :
Vitamin A = Retinol
Vitamin D = Calciferol
Vitamin E = Alpha Tocoferol
Vitamin K = Methyl phytyl naphthaquinone

2. Water soluble : This is the second type of vitamin.
Vitamins C and Vitamin B complex are the waters soluble. These are stored in small amounts only and any excess is excreted. So there is no danger of cumulative toxicity, rather they have to be taken regularly.

So we are going to talk in detail about the each vitamins with their Source and Deficiencies.

A. FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS

What are vitamins / FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS?


1. VITAMIN A (Retinol)

source-and-deficiency-of-vitamins

Vitamin A is an vital human nutrient. Vitamin A actually refers to a family of similarly shaped molecules: the retinoids. Its important part is the retinyl group, which can be found in many forms. In foods of animal origin, the major form of vitamin A is an ester, primarily retinyl palmitate, which is converted to a alcohol (retinol) in the smallintestine.

What are the Source of vitamin A
1. Fish liver oil,
2. Fat
3. Egg yolks
4. Liver and milk,
5. As beta- carotene in carrot,
6. Yellow or green fruit
7. Greens and vegetables

What are the Deficiency of vitamin A
These some disease may occurs in deficiency of vitamin A :
1. Eye synonyms
2. Rough skin
3. Dry skin
4. Dry eyes
5. Decreased eye vision
6. Vulnerability to respiratory infection.
7. Vulnerability to urinary infection.
8. Growth retardation in children.

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    2. VITAMIN D (Calciferol)

    Source and deficiency of vitamin D

    Vitamin D

    Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble prohormones, the two main forms of which are vitamin D, (or ergocalciferol) and vitamin D3 (or cholecalciferol). The term vitamin Dalso refers to metabolites and other analogues of these substances. Vitamin D, is produced in skin exposed to sunlight, specifically ultraviolet B radiation. Vitamin D plays an important role in the maintenance of organ systems.

    What are the main Source of Vitamin D

    fish liver oil,
    Egg yolk
    Butter
    Milk
    It also synthesized in the skin under the influence of UV rays.

    What are the Deficiency of vitamin D :
    1. Rickets
    2. Osteomalacia (bone thinning disorder)
    3. Osteoporosis (reduced bone mineral density)

    VITAMIN E (Alpha tocoferol)

    Vitamin E is also known as TOCOPHEROLS. Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin that exists in eight different forms. Each form has its own biological activity, which is the measure of potency or functional use in the body Alpha- tocopherol (o-tocopherol) is the name of the most active form of vitamin Ein humans. It is a powerful biological antioxidant.

    Some Source of vitamin E
    Wheat germ oil is the richest source of Vitamin E,
    other sources is
    cereals,
    nuts,
    spinach and
    egg yolk

    These disease may occurs when you have Deficiency of Vitamin E:
    irritability,
    Edema,
    Anemia (in adults),
    Ataxia (poor muscles coordination),
    Paralysis of eyes,
    Inability to walk.

    VITAMIN K (Methyl phytyl naphthaquinone)

    (K from “Koagulations-Vitamin” in German and Danish) denotes a group of lipophilic, hydrophobic vitamins that are needed for the post translational modification of certain proteins, mostly required for blood coagulation. Chemically they are 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives. Vitamin K, (menaquinone, menatetrenone) is normally produced by bacteria in the intestines, and dietary deficiency is extremely rare unless the intestines are heavily damaged or are unable to absorb the molecule.

    Deficiency of Vitamin K :
    1. Hemorrhagic disease,
    2. Internal bleeding,
    3. Skin bleeding,
    4. Poisoning with Vitamin K antagonist,
    5. Liver disease,
    6. Intestinal disease.

    B. WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS :

    What are vitamins / WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS


    VITAMIN B

    What are the function and uses of vitamins

    Vitamin B

    The B vitamins are eight water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism. The B vitamins were once thought to be a single vitamin, referred to as vitamin They are chemically distinct vitamins that often coexist in the
    same foods. Supplements containing all eight are usually referred to as a vitamin B complex. Individual B vitamin supplements are referred to by the specific name of each vitamin e.g. B1, B2, B3).

    List of B vitamins :
    Vitamin B1 (thiamine),
    Vitamin B2 (riboflavin),
    Vitamin B3 (niacin, includes nicotinic acid and nicotinamide),
    Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid),
    Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine),
    Vitamin B7, also called vitamin H (biotin),
    Vitamin B9, also vitamin M and vitamin B-c (folic acid),
    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin),
    Vitamin B8 (myo-inositol) is no longer classified as a vitamin because it is synthesized by the human body.

    Some Source of vitamin B :
    pulses,
    nuts,
    green vegetables,
    yeast,
    egg,
    meat,
    soyabean and
    milk etc

    What are the Deficiency of vitamin B :
    These disease may occurs in the deficiency of vitamin B
    beriberi,
    GIT symptoms,
    Dry scary skin,
    Pellagra,
    Diarrhea,
    Dementia and
    Growth retardbrion

    VITAMIN C

    Function and uses of vitamins

    Vitamin C

    Ascorbic acid is also known as vitamin C. It is essential for the prevention and cure of scurvy, a disease which has been known since ancient times.

    Source of vitamin C :
    Citrus fruits and Fresh vegetables such as tomatoes, potatoes, lemon and other vegetables and fruits

    Deficiency of Vitamin C :

    Scurvy,
    Weakness,
    Swollen Gums,
    Nosebleeds,
    Fatigue etc.

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